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269 charts

Monetary policy operations in the euro area, 2015–2021

Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) in the euro area, 1998QI–2021Q2

Equilibrium real interest rate in the euro area, 2005–2021

Public sector expected to remain in deficit in immediate years ahead

Low interest rates keep public sector debt interest expenditure low

Public sector debt has been growing for several decades, but there are considerable differences between countries

Market expectations over the longer term is for inflation to settle at 1.5–2.5%

Individual sub-categories account for most of the rise in inflation in the euro area and the United States

Underlying inflation increased dramatically in United States; no such trend discernible in euro area

Acceleration in euro area inflation largely due to energy prices

Rising commodity prices and supply chain bottlenecks have driven producer price inflation in the euro area

Long-term inflation expectations in euro area continue to be muted relative to the ECB’s inflation target

Accommodative financing conditions and government support measures have helped ensure access to credit and euro area recovery from the crisis

Euro area financing conditions have remained accommodative despite the crisis

Asset purchases and refinancing operations have expanded Eurosystem balance sheet significantly during COVID-19 crisis

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