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Charts

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677 charts

Rising commodity prices and supply chain bottlenecks have driven producer price inflation in the euro area

Acceleration in euro area inflation largely due to energy prices

Underlying inflation increased dramatically in United States; no such trend discernible in euro area

Individual sub-categories account for most of the rise in inflation in the euro area and the United States

Market expectations over the longer term is for inflation to settle at 1.5–2.5%

Public sector debt has been growing for several decades, but there are considerable differences between countries

Low interest rates keep public sector debt interest expenditure low

Public sector expected to remain in deficit in immediate years ahead

Equilibrium real interest rate in the euro area, 2005–2021

Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) in the euro area, 1998QI–2021Q2

Announcement of PEPP on 18 March 2020 led to clear reduction in yields on long-term government bonds but not in risk-free long rates

The purchase programmes' impact on GDP and inflation has been markedly positive

TLTROs conducted during the pandemic have been moderately supportive of economic growth and inflation

Monetary policy operations in the euro area, 2015–2021

Increase in vaccination coverage is easing the health crisis

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