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Average contributions of demand from production sectors in the import decline in 1Q09 and 2Q20

Average contributions of demand components in the import decline in 1Q09 and 2Q20

Annual change in the quarterly GDP and imports in OECD countries

Monetary policy operations in the euro area, 2015–2021

Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) in the euro area, 1998QI–2021Q2

Equilibrium real interest rate in the euro area, 2005–2021

Public sector expected to remain in deficit in immediate years ahead

Low interest rates keep public sector debt interest expenditure low

Public sector debt has been growing for several decades, but there are considerable differences between countries

Market expectations over the longer term is for inflation to settle at 1.5–2.5%

Individual sub-categories account for most of the rise in inflation in the euro area and the United States

Underlying inflation increased dramatically in United States; no such trend discernible in euro area

Acceleration in euro area inflation largely due to energy prices

Rising commodity prices and supply chain bottlenecks have driven producer price inflation in the euro area

Long-term inflation expectations in euro area continue to be muted relative to the ECB’s inflation target

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