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In the public finances preparation for the future challenges must be made today

General government gross debt in low-income developing countries

Remittances, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance flows to low- and middle-income countries, excluding China

Share of countries in Finnish merchandise exports

BOFIT visiting researchers

Annual change in the quarterly GDP and imports in OECD countries

Average contributions of demand components in the import decline in 1Q09 and 2Q20

Average contributions of demand from production sectors in the import decline in 1Q09 and 2Q20

Rising commodity prices and supply chain bottlenecks have driven producer price inflation in the euro area

Acceleration in euro area inflation largely due to energy prices

Underlying inflation increased dramatically in United States; no such trend discernible in euro area

Individual sub-categories account for most of the rise in inflation in the euro area and the United States

Market expectations over the longer term is for inflation to settle at 1.5–2.5%

Public sector debt has been growing for several decades, but there are considerable differences between countries

Low interest rates keep public sector debt interest expenditure low

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